Donkeys are susceptible to the same respiratory diseases as horses. Find out what signs to look out for and ways to reduce the risks.
The respiratory system starts at the nose which leads to the windpipe (trachea), which branches into bronchi leading to each lung. Tiny hairs in the nasal passages trap dust and other particles that would otherwise irritate the sensitive lining of the lungs. Mucous production throughout the system also serves to trap foreign particles. Coughing is a reflex designed to ‘cough up’ mucous-covered foreign particles.
Causes of disease
Several viruses may affect the donkey such as Equine Influenza, Equine Herpes Virus (and a donkey-specific Herpes virus called Asinine Herpes Virus). Bacterial infections include Strangles (Streptococcus equi). Parasites include an equine specific lungworm.
This is the equivalent of asthma and could be caused through dust, pollen or fungal spores. A notable condition in the donkey is Recurrent Airway Obstruction - in some cases pasture associated.
This is a reduction in the elasticity of the lungs so essential for effective inspiration and expiration. This may occur with age or as a sequel to another pathological insult such as viral diseases.
Not very common but they do occur.
Tracheal narrowing or collapse
The windpipe cannot function effectively if it loses its shape.
Signs of respiratory disease in the donkey
It is essential that you know what is the normal respiratory rate for your donkey. Get used to checking the rate of respiration (how often your donkey breathes in and out). This is variable but on average a donkey breathes in and out between 13 and 31 times per minute, with an average of 20 times a minute.
- If nostrils flare with each inspiration there may be a problem
- Breathing should be as easy for a donkey as it is for us
- Excessive abdominal movements are abnormal
- An outstretched neck or very noisy respiration is abnormal
- Persistent coughing is abnormal
- Any nasal discharge, whether thick or thin, is abnormal. Check if it is from one side or coming from both nostrils
- Feel around your donkey’s head, especially between the bones of the lower jaw and throat area. There should be no abnormal swellings which could indicate swollen lymph glands as a result of infection
- If your donkey is off its feed and/or has a high temperature this could indicate respiration infection.
What to do
Call your vet without delay
Any information regarding breathing characteristics, body temperature and discharges will be very useful to let your vet know about. Your vet will certainly want to confirm that vaccination against Equine Influenza is up to date. Worming information will also be vital. Information regarding any change of bedding material may be relevant. It is essential that you let your vet know if your donkey has travelled recently and whether there has been contact with other equines.
Your vet will carry out an examination, which may include checking the body temperature, pulse rate and respiration rate. A sample of nasal discharge may be taken away for analysis. A stethoscope will be used to listen to the breathing sounds in the lungs. Blood and dung samples may well be taken. X-rays are not very useful for examining the chest of a donkey but an endoscope (a tube containing a light source which can be inserted into the windpipe via a nostril) can be used to look for signs of disease in the windpipe.
This will depend upon the vet’s findings but could include anti-inflammatory medication, antibiotics and drugs to expand the airways and reduce excessive mucous production. More complex procedures such as taking a lung biopsy may be indicated. In some cases changes in management are essential, for example, if a dust allergy is suspected then dust-free management must be put in place. This will involve a change to dust-free bedding, soaking of feeding straw/hay and turn out as much as possible.
Many respiratory diseases are highly infectious. Seek your vet’s advice about what to do if an infectious cause is diagnosed, but always remember never to separate your donkey from its companion.
Reducing the risk
Ensure your donkey is vaccinated against Equine Influenza - this requires an annual booster. Even if your donkey never leaves the paddock it is still at risk. Other equines may be in the vicinity and could spread infection. You could even bring infection in yourself.
Ask your vet about testing for worms by carrying out a faecal worm egg count.
Make sure your bedding and feeding straw/hay is good quality and as dust-free as possible. If you see mould on the hay or straw discard it. Clean and disinfect your donkeys' stable on a regular basis, removing mouldy, dirty damp bedding, dust and remove any cobwebs. Ensure stables are well ventilated but not draughty.
Your donkeys will thrive on an environment enrichment programme. Highly intelligent and inquisitive, donkeys greatly enjoy being taken out for walks and the exercise provides real health benefits as well as making it easier for you spot any abnormalities.
Want to know more?
Information for donkey owners